Northampton Electronic Collection of Theses and Research

Powerful signals for weak muscles

Saini, A., Faulkner, S., Al-Shanti, N. and Stewart, C. (2009) Powerful signals for weak muscles. Ageing Research Reviews. 8(4), pp. 251-267. 1568-1637.

Item Type: Article
Abstract: The aim of the present review is to summarise, evaluate and critique the different mechanisms involved in anabolic growth of skeletal muscle and the catabolic processes involved in cancer cachexia and sarcopenia of ageing. This is highly relevant, since they represent targets for future promising clinical investigations. Sarcopenia is an inevitable process associated with a gradual reduction in muscle mass and strength, associated with a reduction in motor unit number and atrophy of muscle fibres, especially the fast type IIa fibres. The loss of muscle mass with ageing is clinically important because it leads to diminished functional ability and associated complications. Cachexia is widely recognised as severe and rapid wasting accompanying disease states such as cancer or immunodeficiency disease. One of the main characteristics of cancer cachexia is asthenia or lack of strength, which is directly related to the muscle loss. Indeed, apart from the speed of loss, muscle wasting during cancer and ageing share many common metabolic pathways and mediators. In healthy young individuals, muscles maintain their mass and function because of a balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation associated with rates of anabolic and catabolic processes, respectively. Muscles grow (hypertrophy) when protein synthesis exceeds protein degradation. Conversely, muscles shrink (atrophy) when protein degradation dominates. These processes are not occurring independently of each other, but are finely coordinated by a web of intricate signalling networks. Such signalling networks are in charge of executing environmental and cellular cues that ultimately determine whether muscle proteins are synthesised or degraded. Increasing our understanding for the pathways involved in hypertrophy and atrophy and particularly the interaction of these pathways is essential in designing therapeutic strategies for both prevention and treatment of muscle wasting conditions with age and with disease.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Sarcopenia, cachexia, IGF-I, FOXOs
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC925 Diseases of the musculoskeletal system
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC952 Geriatrics
Creators: Saini, Amarjit, Faulkner, Steve, Al-Shanti, Nasser and Stewart, Claire
Publisher: Elsevier
Northamptonshire and East Midlands: Health
Faculties, Divisions and Institutes: University Faculties, Divisions and Research Centres - OLD > Faculty of Health & Society > Sports, Exercise & Life Sciences
Faculties > Faculty of Health & Society > Sports, Exercise & Life Sciences
Date: October 2009
Date Type: Publication
Page Range: pp. 251-267
Journal or Publication Title: Ageing Research Reviews
Volume: 8
Number: 4
Language: English
ISSN: 1568-1637
Status: Published / Disseminated

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