Arvinen-Barrow, M., Weigand, D., Thomas, S. and Hemmings, B.
Very little research has investigated differences in imagery use between open-and closed-skill sports. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of competitive level (elite/novice) and skill-type (open/closed) on athletes' imagery use. A total of 83 British athletes (39 elite, 44 novice) from open-(n = 40: 23 rugby; 17 martial arts) and closed-skill (n = 43: 28 golf; 15 figure skating) sports completed the Sport Imagery Questionnaire no more than 24 hours prior to competition. MANOVA revealed that main effects due to competitive level and skill-type were significant (p < .05). Univariate analyses revealed that elite athletes used more CS and CG imagery than novices (p < .001), and contrary to previous research findings, athletes in open-skilled sports used more MG-A imagery than those in closed-skill sports (p < .001). Overall, MG-M was the most used imagery type, regardless of competitive level and skill-type. The results are discussed in terms of methodological difficulties, future research, and practical implications.