Northampton Electronic Collection of Theses and Research

What can we learn about soil erosion from the use of 137Cs?

Parsons, A. J. and Foster, I. D. L. (2011) What can we learn about soil erosion from the use of 137Cs? Earth-Science Reviews. 108(1-2), pp. 101-113. 0012-8252.

Item Type: Article
Abstract: The radioisotope 137Cs has been extensively used to provide information about soil erosion. The technique relies upon a number of assumptions that this review evaluates in order to establish what can be learned about soil erosion from the use of 137Cs. The assumption of locally spatially uniform fallout is broken down into three components: (1) atmospheric fallout is spatially uniform; (2) transfer to the soil is spatially uniform; and (3) no redistribution occurs during the transfer process. Evidence is presented to show that none of these assumptions is valid. Similarly, it is shown that the literature that continues to examine both the processes of adsorption of 137Cs onto soil particles, the conditions under which it may be desorbed and the uptake of 137Cs by plants, makes the assumption that 137Cs is rapidly and irreversibly adsorbed onto soil particles contestable. Evidence is presented for the movement of 137Cs across the landscape other than by movement of soil particles across the surface. Methods used to convert 137Cs inventories into rates of erosion are reviewed, as are errors associated with obtaining 137Cs inventories. Finally, the relationship of 137Cs inventories to current understanding of soil-erosion processes is assessed. It is concluded that that no current rates of soil erosion that are based upon the use of this technique are reliable, and that 137Cs cannot be used to provide reliable information about rates of soil erosion.
Uncontrolled Keywords: 137Cs, Soil erosion, Atmospheric fallout, Processes of fallout redistribution, 137Cs conversion models
Subjects: Q Science > QE Geology > QE500 Dynamic and structural geology > QE570 Weathering. Erosion
S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General) > S623 Soil erosion
Creators: Parsons, A J and Foster, Ian D L
Publisher: Elsevier
Faculties, Divisions and Institutes: University Faculties, Divisions and Research Centres - OLD > School of Science and Technology (2010-2016)
Faculties > Faculty of Arts, Science & Technology > Environmental Science
Date: September 2011
Date Type: Publication
Page Range: pp. 101-113
Journal or Publication Title: Earth-Science Reviews
Volume: 108
Number: 1-2
Language: English
ISSN: 0012-8252
Status: Published / Disseminated
Refereed: Yes
References: G.I. Agapkina, F.A. Tikhomirov, A.I. Sccheglov Association of Chernobyl-derived 239 + 240Pu, 241Am, 90Sr and 137Cs with organic matter in the soil solution Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 29 (1995), pp. 257–269 H. Amano, T. Matsunaga, S. Nagao, Y. Hanzawa, M. Watanabe, T. Ueno, Y. Onuma The transfer capability of long-lived Chernobyl radionuclides from surface soil to river water in dissolved forms B.D. Amiro, S.C. Sheppard, F.L. Johnston, W.G. Evenden, D.R. Harris A burning question: what happens to iodine, cesium, and chlorine in biomass fires? L.R. Basher Surface erosion assessment using 137Cs: examples from New Zealand Acta Geologica Hispanica, 35 (2000), pp. 219–228 Basher, L.R., Mathews, K.M., Zhi, L. 1995. Surface erosion assessment in the South Cantuerbury Downlands, New Zealand using 137Cs distribution. Australian Journal of Soil Research 33, 787–803. E.L. Bertha, G.R. Choppin Interactions of humic and fulvic acids with Eu (III) and Am (III) Radiochimica Acta, 35 (1984), pp. 143–147 P. Bishop, B. Campbell, C. McFadden Absence of caesium-137 from recent sediments in eastern Australia — indications of catchment processes? Catena, 18 (1991), pp. 61–69 G.H. Bolt, M.G.M. Bruggenwert, A. Kamphorst Adsportption of cations by soil G.H. Bolt, M.G.M. Bruggenwert (Eds.), Soil Chemistry A. Basic Elements, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1976), pp. 54–90 K. Bunzl, W. Kracke, W. Schimmack, K. Auerswald Migration of fallout 239 + 240Pu, 241Amand 137Cs in the various horizons of a forest soil under pine Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 28 (1995), pp. 17–34 P. Cawse The accumulation of 137Cs and 239 + 240Pu in soils of Great Britain, and transfer to vegetation P.J. Coughtrey (Ed.), Ecological aspects of radionuclide release, Blackwell, Oxford (1983), pp. 47–61 Chapman A.S. 2001. Particulate phosphorus loss from agricultural land in the UK. Unpublished PhD thesis, Coventry University. A.S. Chapman, I.D.L. Foster, J.A. Lees, R.J. Hodgkinson, R.H. Jackson Phosphorus transfer from field to river via land drains in England and Wales. A risk assessment using field and national data bases Soil Use and Management., 19 (2003), pp. 347–355 A.S. Chapman, I.D.L. Foster, J.A. Lees, R.J. Hodgkinson Sediment sources and transport pathways in the Rosemaund experimental catchment, Herefordshire, UK Hydrological Processes, 19 (2005), pp. 2875–2897 G.R. Choppin Humics and radionuclide migration Radiochimica Acta, 44 (45) (1988), pp. 23–28 M.J. Clark, F.B. Smith Wet and dry deposition of Chernobyl releases Nature, 332 (1988), pp. 245–249 L.L. Cook, R.S. Inouye, T.P. McGonigle, G.J. White The distribution of stable cesium in soiuls and plants of the eastern Snake River Plain in southern Idaho Journal of Arid Environments, 69 (2007), pp. 40–64 Dalgleish H.V. 1994. Caesium-137 distribution and uptake in an agricultural environment. Unpublished PhD thesis, Coventry University. H.Y. Dalgleish, I.D.L. Foster 137Cs losses from a loamy surface water gleyed soil (Inceptisol): a laboratory simulation experiment Catena, 26 (1996), pp. 227–245 H. Dörr, K.O. Münnich Spatial distribution of soil 137Cs and 134Cs in West Germany after Chernobyl Naturwissenschaften, 74 (1987), pp. 249–251 M. Du, H. Yang, Q. Chang, K. Minami, T. Hatta Caesium-137 fallout depth distribution in different soil profiles and significance for estimating soil erosion rate Sciences of Soil, 3 (1998) C. Dumat, S. Staunton Reduced adsorption of caesium on clay minerals caused by avrious humic substances Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 46 (1999), pp. 187–200 D.D. Eberl Alkali cation selectivity and fixation by clay minerals Clays Clay Mineralogy, 28 (1980), pp. 161–172 G.L. Elliott, B.L. Campbell, R.J. Loughran Correlation of erosion measurement and soil caesium-137 content International Journal of Radiation Applications and Instrumentation. A : Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 41 (1990), pp. 713–717 J.A. Entry, L.S. Watrud, M. Reeves Accumulation of Cs-137 and Sr-90 from contaminated soil by three grass species inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi Environmental Pollution, 104 (1999), pp. 449–457 P. Fiener, K. Auerswald Spatial variability of rainfall on a sub-kilometre scale Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34 (2009), pp. 848–859 W.L. Fornes, P.J. Whiting, C.G. Wilson, G. Matisoff Caesium-137-derived erosion rates in an agricultural setting: the effects of model assumptions and management practices Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 30 (2005), pp. 1181–1189 I.D.L. Foster, H. Dalgeish, J.A. Dearing, E.D. Jones Quantifying soil erosion and sediment transport in drainage basins: some observations on the use of 137Cs International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication, no. 224 (1994), pp. 55–64 I.D.L. Foster, A.S. Chapman, R.M. Hodgkinson, A.R. Jones, J.A. Lees, S.E. Turner, M. Scott Changing suspended sediment and particulate phosphorus loads and pathways in underdrained lowland agricultural catchments, Herefordshire and Worcestershire, UK Hydrobiologia, 494 (2003), pp. 119–126 C.W. Francis, F.S. Brinkley Preferential adsorption of 137Cs to micaceous minerals in contaminated freshwater sediments Nature, 260 (1976), pp. 511–513 D.J. Fredericks, V. Norris, S.J. Perrens Estimating erosion using caesium-137: I. Measuring caesium-137 activity in soil International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication, no. 174 (1988), pp. 225–231 T. Fukuyama, C. Takenaka Upward migration of 137Cs in surface soild of Chamaecyparis obtuse Sieb, et Zucc (hinoki) plantaion in Japan The Science of the Toal Environment, 318 (2004), pp. 187–195 T. Fukuyama, C. Takenaka, Y. Onda 137Cs losses via soil erosion from a mountainous headwater catchment in central Japan Science of the Total Environment, 350 (2005), pp. 238–247 G. Gilmore Practical Gamma Spectrometry Wiley, Chichester (2008) Grant, R., Laubel, A., Kronvang, B., Anderson, H.E., Svendson, L.M., Fuglsang, A., 1996. Loss of dissolved and particulate phosphorous from arable catchments by subsurface drainage. Water Research 30 (11) 2633–2642. I.J. Hardy, A.D. Carter, P.B. Leeds-Harrison, I.D.L. Foster, R.M. Saunders The origin of sediment in field drainage water Foster (Ed.), Tracers in Geomorphology (2000), pp. 241–257 L.E. Haughen Small-scale variations in deposition of radiocaesium from the Chernobyl fallout on cultivated grasslands in Norway Analyst, 117 (1992), pp. 465–468 Q. He, D.E. Walling Interpreting the particle size effect in the adsorption of 137Cs and unsupported 210Pb by mineral soils and sediments Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 30 (1996), pp. 117–137 D.L. Higgitt The development and application of Caesium-137 measurements in erosion investigations I.D.L. Foster, A.M. Gurnell, B.W. Webb (Eds.), Sediment and Water Quality in River Catchments, Wiley, Chichester (1995), pp. 287–305 D.L. Higgitt, X. Lu, L.J. Pu Soil erosion assessment using 137Cs: examples from contrasting environments in southern China I.D.L. Foster (Ed.), Tracers in Geomorphology, Chichester Wiley (2000), pp. 165–182 P. Hinsinger, B. Jaillard Root induced release of interlayer potassium and vermiculitization of phlogopite as related to potassium depletion in the rhizosphere of rye-grass Journal of Soil Science, 44 (1993), pp. 523–534 A.B. Hird, D.L. Rimmer, F.R. Livens Total caesium-fixing potential of acid organic soils Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 26 (1995), pp. 103–118 A.B. Hird, D.L. Rimmer, F.R. Livens Factors affecting the sorption and fixation of caesium in acid organic soil European Journal of Soil Science, 47 (1996), pp. 97–104 R.G. Kachanoski Comparison of measured soil 137-cesium losses and erosion rates Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 67 (1987), pp. 199–203 J.M. Kaste, A.M. Heimsath, M. Hohmann Quantifying sediment transport across an undsiturbed prairie landscape using cesium-137 and high resolution topography Geomorphology, 76 (2006), pp. 430–440 G.J.D. Kirk, S. Staunton On predicting the fate of radioactive caesium in soil beneath grassland Journal of Soil Science, 40 (1989), pp. 71–84 O.V. Konshin Transfer of 137Cs from soil to grass — analysis of possible sources of uncertainty Health Physics, 63 (1992), pp. 307–315 J.C. Lance, S.C. McIntyre, J.W. Naney, S.S. Rousseva Measuring sediment movement at low erosion rates using cesium-137 Soil Science Society of America Journal, 50 (1986), pp. 1303–1309 M.M. Lasat, W.A. Norvell, L.V. Kochian Potential for phytoextraction of 137Cs from a contaminated soil Plant and Soil, 195 (1997), pp. 99–106 A. Laubel, O.H. Jacobsen, B. Kronvang, R. Grant, E. Andersen Subsurface drainage loss of particles and phosphorus from field plot experiments and a tile-drained catchment Journal of Environmental Quality, 28 (1999), pp. 576–584 N. Lavi, G. Golob, Z.B. Alfassi Monitoring and surveillance of radio-cesium in cultivated soils and foodstuffs in Israel 18 years after the Chernobyl disaster Radiation Measurements, 41 (2006), pp. 78–83 H. Lettner, P. Bossew, A.K. Hubmer Spatial variability of fallout Caesium-137 in Austrian alpine regions Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 47 (2000), pp. 71–82 C. Leyval, J. Bethelin Weathering of mica by roots and rhizosperic microorganisms of pine Soil Science Society of America Journal, 55 (1991), pp. 1009–1016 F.R. Livens, M.T. Howe, J.D. Hemingway, K.W.T. Goulding, B.J. Howard Forms and rates of release of 137Cs in two peat soils European Journal of Soil Science, 47 (1996), pp. 105–112 M. Llaurado, M. Vidal, G. Rauret, C. Roca, J. Fons, V.R. Vallejo Radiocesium behaviour in Mediterranean conditions Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 23 (1994), pp. 81–100 M.E. Longmore, B.M. McCallan, C.W. O'Leary, C.W. Rose, A.L. Chandica Mapping erosion and accumulation with the fallout isotope caesium-137 Australian Journal of Soil Research, 21 (1983), pp. 373–385 R.J. Loughran, B.L. Campbell, G.L. Elliott The calculation of net soil loss using Caesium-137 J. Boardman, I.D.L. Foster, J.A. Dearing (Eds.), Soil Erosion on Agricultural Land, Wiley, Chichester (1990), pp. 119–126 R.J. Loughran, P.J. Wallbrink, D.E. Walling, P.J. Appleby Sampling methods F. Zapata (Ed.), Handbook for the Assessment of Soil Erosion and Sedimentation using Environmental Radionuclides, Kluwer, Amsterdam (2002), pp. 41–57 L. Mabit, C. Bernard, M.R. Laverdière Quantification of soil redistribution and sediment budget in a Canadian watershed from fallout caesium-137 (137Cs) data Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 82 (2002), pp. 423–431 C. Madoz-Escande, L. Garcia-Sanchez, T. Bonhomme, M. Morello Influence of rainfall characteristics on elimination of aerosols in cesium, strontium, barium and tellurium deposited on grassland Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 84 (2005), pp. 1–20 C. Martinez, G.R. Hancock, J.D. Kalma Comparison of fallout radionuclide (caesium-137) and modelling approaches for the assessment of soil erosion rates for an uncultivated site in south-eastern Australia Geoderma, 151 (2009), pp. 128–140 D.J. McFarlane, R.J. Loughran, B.L. Campbell Soil erosion of agricultural land in western Australia estimated by caesium-137 Australian Journal of Soil Research, 30 (1992), pp. 533–546 I.K. Mitsios, D.L. Rowell Plant uptake of exchangeable and non-exchangeable potassium. I. Measurement and modelling for onion rotts in a Chalky Boulder Clay soil Journal of Soil Science, 38 (1987), pp. 53–63 J.A. Montgomery, A.J. Busacca, B.E. Frazier, D.K. McCool Evaluating soil movement using cesium-137 and the Revised Soil Loss Equation Soil Science Society of America Journal, 61 (1997), pp. 571–579 J.W. Naney, L.R. Ahuja A simple method to characterize watershed soils Proceedings of a Symposium on Watershed Management 1980, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York (1980), pp. 731–741 M.A. Nearing, A. Kimoto, M.H. Nichols, J.C. Ritchie Spatial patterns of soil erosion and deposition in two small semiarid watersheds Journal of Geophysical Research, 110 (2005), p. F04020 A. Nouira, E.H. Sayouty, M. Benmansour Use of Cs-137 technique for soil erosion study in agricultural region of Casablanca in Morocco Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 68 (2003), pp. 11–26 P.H. Nye, P.B. Tinkner Solute Movement in the Soil–Root System Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1977) B.W. Oscarson, H.B. Hume, F. King Sorption of cesium on compacted bentonite Clays and Clay Minerals, 42 (1994), pp. 731–736 P.N. Owens, D.E. Walling Spatial variability of caesium-137 inventories at reference sites: an example from two contrasting sites in England and Zimbabwe Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 47 (1996), pp. 699–707 P.N. Owens, D.E. Walling, Q. He The behaviour of bomb-derived Caesium-137 fallout in catchment soils Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 32 (1996), pp. 169–191 C. Papastefanou, M. Manolopoulou, S. Stoulos, A. Ioannidou, E. Gerasopoulos Cesium-137 in grass from Chernobyl fallout Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 83 (2005), pp. 253–257 A.J. Parsons, J. Wainwright, D.M. Powell, J. Kaduk, R.E. Brazier A conceptual model for determining soil erosion by water Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 29 (2004), pp. 1293–1302 D.J. Pennock, P.G. Appleby Site selection and sampling design F. Zapata (Ed.), Handbook for the Assessment of Soil Erosion and Sedimentation using Environmental Radionuclides, Kluwer, Amsterdam (2002), pp. 15–40 P. Porto, D.E. Walling, V. Ferro Validating the use of caesium-137 measurements to estimate soil erosion rates in a small drainage basin in Calabria, Southern Italy Journal of Hydrology, 248 (2001), pp. 93–108 Z. Qi, C.R. Hampton, R. Shin, B.J. Barkia, P.J. White, D.P. Schachtman The high affinity of K+ transporter AtHAK5 plays a physiological rolein planta at very low K+ concentrations and provides a caesium uptake pathway in Arabidopsis Journal of Experimental Botany, 59 (2008), pp. 597–607 T.A. Quine, D.E. Walling Use of caesium-137 measurements to investigate relationship between erosion rates and topography D.S.G. Thomas, R.J. Allison (Eds.), Landscape Sensitivity, John Wiley and Sons Ltd. (1993), pp. 31–48 J. Quirantes, E. Barahona, A. Iriarte Soil degradation and erosion insoutheastern Spain. Contributions of the Zaidin Experimental Station CSIC (Granada, Spain) M. Sala, J.L. Rubio, J.M. García-Ruiz (Eds.), Soil Erosion Studies in Spain, 211–217, Geoforma Ediciones, Logroño (1991) B. Rafferty, D. Dawson, A. Kliashtorin Decomposition in two pine forests: the mobilisation of 137Cs and K from forest litter Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 29 (1997), pp. 1673–1681 A. Rigol, M. Vidal, G. Rauret An overview of the effect of organic matter on soil–radiocaesim interaction: implications in root uptake Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 58 (2002), pp. 191–216 J.C. Ritchie, C.A. Ritchie Bibliography of 137Cs studies USDA-ARS Hydrology and Remote Sensing Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (2003) J.C. Ritchie, J.A. Spraberry, J.R. McHenry Estimating soil erosion from the redistribution of fallout Cs-137 Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 38 (1974), pp. 137–139 A.S. Rogowski, T. Tamura Movement of 137Cs by runoff, erosion and infiltration on the alluvial Captina silt loam Health Physics, 11 (1965), pp. 1333–1340 A.S. Rogowski, T. Tamura Environmental mobility of cesium-137 Radiation Biology, 10 (1970), pp. 35–45 R.S. Russell Interception and retention of airborne material on plants Health Physics, 11 (1965), pp. 1305–1315 M.A. Russell, D.E. Walling, R.A. Hodgkinson Suspended sediment sources in two small lowland agricultural catchments in the UK Journal of Hydrology, 252 (2001), pp. 1–24 C.A. Salt, R.W. Mayes Plant uptake of radiocaesium on heather moorland grazed by sheep Journal of Applied Ecology, 30 (1993), pp. 235–246 R.K. Schultz Soil chemistry of radionuclides Health Physics, 11 (1965), pp. 1317–1324 G. Shaw, L.K. Scott, R.P. Kinnersley Sorption of caesium, iodine and sulphur in solution to the adaxiam leaf surface of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) Environmental and Experimental Botany, 59 (2007), pp. 361–370 M.A. Shenber, Å. Eriksson Sorption behaviour of caes

Actions (login required)

Edit Item Edit Item