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Using mineral magnetism to characterise ironworking and to detect its evidence in peat bogs

Mighall, T. M., Foster, I. D. L., Crew, P., Chapman, A. S. and Finn, A. (2009) Using mineral magnetism to characterise ironworking and to detect its evidence in peat bogs. Journal of Archaeological Science. 36(1), pp. 130-139. 0305-4403.

Item Type: Article
Abstract: An experimental approach has been used to establish whether medieval ironworking activity could be identified in peat bogs using mineral magnetic measurements. The research project comprised three elements. First, magnetic susceptibility and remanence properties were obtained for materials from an experimental iron smelt, in a furnace of medieval design, and from material collected during the excavation of the medieval bloomery at Llwyn Du in Coed y Brenin, Snowdonia. Materials sampled and measured included charcoal, aerial dust, roasted bog ore and furnace dust. A second experiment determined whether small amounts of aerial dust released from the furnace could be detected in accumulating peat samples. This was achieved by sprinkling small quantities of dust on to a constructed ’peat core’ that had no detectable magnetic signature prior to the addition of the dust. The application rates used were within the range expected to fall on a peat bog located close to a medieval furnace. Thirdly, mineral magnetic measurements were made on a peat core collected close to the Llwyn Du bloomery. The results confirm that roasted bog ore, aerial dust released from and dust accumulating in the furnace after a smelt, are magnetically detectable. The aerial dust and roasted bog ore produced enhanced susceptibility and remanence signatures in the constructed ’peat core’ experiments. Peaks in IRM(0.88T) and HIRM were measured in the Llwyn Du peat monolith and appear to correlate with a time when the medieval bloomery was operational. The results presented here suggest that it is possible to identify evidence of past ironworking in peat bogs using mineral magnetic measurements and that the signatures remain well preserved in the peat record even after burial for several hundred years
Subjects: C Auxiliary Sciences of History > CC Archaeology > CC79.36 Soil science in archaeology
C Auxiliary Sciences of History > CC Archaeology
T Technology > TN Mining engineering. Metallurgy > TN600 Metallurgy > TN703 Iron
T Technology > T Technology (General) > T37 Industrial archaeology
Creators: Mighall, T M, Foster, Ian D L, Crew, P, Chapman, A S and Finn, A
Publisher: Elsevier
Faculties, Divisions and Institutes: University Faculties, Divisions and Research Centres - OLD > School of Applied Sciences (to 2009) > Environmental Science (to 2009)
Date: January 2009
Date Type: Publication
Page Range: pp. 130-139
Journal or Publication Title: Journal of Archaeological Science
Volume: 36
Number: 1
Language: English
ISSN: 0305-4403
Status: Published / Disseminated
Refereed: Yes

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